Eternal Conscious Punishment

Greg Strand – August 11, 2015 3 Comments

Article 10 of the Statement of Faith states that unbelievers will experience “eternal conscious punishment.” Why use the word “conscious”?

What we affirm of this biblical truth and why we do so is grounded in the Bible. We believe this statement because we believe it is taught in the Bible, which we have attempted to capture in our doctrinal statement in Article 10, Response and Eternal Destiny.

This phrase, “eternal conscious punishment,” occurs in the longer statement that addresses the eternal destiny of believers and unbelievers. The complete statement is important to include in order to give this phrase its proper context: “We believe that God will raise the dead bodily and judge the world, assigning the unbeliever to condemnation and eternal conscious punishment and the believer to eternal blessedness and joy with the Lord in the new heaven and the new earth, to the praise of His glorious grace. Amen.”

What we note in this statement, which reflects Jesus’ statement in Matthew 25, is that there is an opposite symmetry between the eternal states of the only two groups of people that exist: unbelievers and believers. For unbelievers, those who have not responded to the gospel of Jesus Christ, they will be condemned and experience “eternal conscious punishment.” For believers, those who have believed and received the gospel of Jesus Christ, they will experience “eternal blessedness and joy with the Lord.” Both states are eternal; both states are conscious. And ultimately, this bodily resurrection and judgement of all will be “to the praise of His glorious grace.”

The meaning of the specific phrase is expounded in Evangelical Convictions: An Exposition of the Statement of Faith of the Evangelical Free Church of America, 249-250:  

Some, especially in recent years, have taken this language of death and destruction in a more literal sense and have argued that though God’s punishment of the wicked is real, it is not eternal. This view, known as “annihilationism” (or “conditional immortality”), holds that the unrighteous will cease to exist after they are judged. In this sense, the punishment for sin is eternal in its effect (that is, it is irreversible), but not eternal in the experience of the one judged. Our Statement denies such a view, contending that the Scripture teaches the continuing existence of persons—both believers and unbelievers—after the judgment, and that the experience of hell is eternal. Hence, we include the expression “eternal conscious punishment.”

Though the term “conscious” is not commonly used in historic confessions, what it expresses has been the almost universal view of the church through history, with, until very recently, only a few theologians and smaller sects standing in opposition. The church has held that the language of Scripture assumes that the destinies of believers and unbelievers, though very different, stand in parallel, and both will continue to experience the consequences of their choice through eternity.

Jesus himself established this connection when he spoke of the Son of Man separating two classes of human beings on the day of judgment as sheep and goats and saying to the goats on his left hand, “Depart from me, you who are cursed, into the eternal fire prepared for the devil and his angels… Then they will go away to eternal punishment, but the righteous to eternal life” (Matt. 25:41,46). It is true that the word translated “eternal” here (aiōnios) means “pertaining to the age to come.” But it is precisely because the age to come was perceived to be without end that the word is most commonly translated in this way. Because this verse uses precisely the same word to describe both the blessedness of the righteous and the punishment of the wicked, we must affirm that both enter into an unending conscious state.

Greg Strand


Affectionately called “Walking Bible” by his youngest daughter, Greg Strand has a ministry history that goes back to 1982. Since that time, he has served in local church ministry in a variety of ministry capacities: youth pastor, associate pastor of adult ministries and senior pastor. He is currently the EFCA's Executive Director of Theology and Credentialing. Greg reads voraciously and never stops learning — a passion reflected in the overflowing bookshelves that spill from his library to multiple offices. And he could tell you about each of those books! His hunger for learning pales in contrast to his great love for God and for teaching the Word of God.

3 responses to Eternal Conscious Punishment

  1. Greg, thanks for this explanation. Crafting and justifying statements of belief is such important work. The phrase successfully distinguishes between annihilation and eternal torment.

    For what it’s worth, however, in the exposition I perceive a subtle yet significant misunderstanding of the conditionalist position. It says;

    “the unrighteous will cease to exist after they are judged. In this sense, the punishment for sin is eternal in its effect (that is, it is irreversible), but not eternal in the experience of the one judged”

    From this, one might get the impression that conditionalists see the punishment as being cessation of existence, and that once this punishment is meted out, its effects are everlasting.

    But to understand conditionalism it is very important to see the punishment itself (and not merely its effects) as everlasting. This is because annihilation is the effective cause of the punishment, which is the privation of eternal life. To fully appreciate this, one needs to lay aside the category of corporal punishment with its insistence upon conscious experience, and adopt capital punishment, appreciating that the point of the death penalty is not quite death per se, but the way in which death prevents ongoing life. The most significant conscious experience component here is actually that which is punitaviely denied. This idea is first seen in Genesis 3:22 where the judgment against sin is given: mankind shall not “live forever.” To the conditionlist, life is always the reference point. Merely to not exist is not a punishment. But forfeiting eternal life is emphatically so.

    That’s why evangelical conditionalists don’t tend to see “eternal” (aiōnios) in Matt 25:46 as meaning “pertaining to the age to come.” We really do think the punishment is eternal—“the punishment of eternal destruction” (2 Thess 1:9)—every bit as eternal as the “eternal fire” of verse 41. The precise way in which we think differently about this Hell of eternal fire then is that it is eternal at its source, because it is the consuming fire which emanates from God’s holy, everlasting presence. Where this phrase appears in Jude 7 aiōnios cannot possibly mean “pertaining to the age to come,” since it points us to what already happened at Sodom and Gommorah, which was at that time “undergoing a punishment of eternal fire.” 2 Pet 2:6 reiterates that this is “an example of what is going to happen to the ungodly.” This eternal fire came from the Lord. Final punishment, then, for the conditionalist, involves the eternal destruction of the ungodly by the eternal fire of the Lord, in order to deprive the wicked of eternal life. We wholeheartedly agree that “precisely the same word” is used in Matt 25:46, with the same meaning. There is a clear parallel there, but also a positive-negative contrast on punishment vs. life. We think that “eternal life” literally means everlasting life, or living forever.

    Anyway, I’m not sure if this has been helpful, but I hope at least that it’s welcome feedback. In case it is of interest, here is the Statement on Evanglical Conditionalism.

  2. Roger Giegerich May 30, 2017 at 9:46 pm

    I feel this does not answer directly my question; that being: If a person does not ever hear the Gospel, say a bush person in the jungle, will he/she experience eternal damnation when death occurs to him/her? Or could they just cease to exist in any form?

    • To you two questions, the responses are yes and no.

      Here is what is stated in Evangelical Convictions: A Theological Exposition of the Statement of Faith of the Evangelical Free Church of America (Minneapolis: Free Church, 2011), 243: “Second, we ask, what then is the destiny of those who have not heard of God’s saving work in Jesus Christ, that is, the unevangelized – can they be saved? Since the coming of God’s final work in Jesus Christ, Scripture speaks clearly of the need to hear and to believe the gospel (cf. Rom. 10:13-15; Acts 4:12; John 14:6; Luke 24:46-47; Acts 26:16-18). And among those capable of understanding the gospel, we affirm that we have no clear biblical warrant for believing that, since the coming of Christ, God has saved anyone apart from conscious faith in Jesus.”

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